Each year the Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York honors the top publications in hand surgery and plastic surgery with the HaMiPla Best Paper Award. In 2018 the prize was awarded to Raymund E Horch for the publication:
© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York
Biofabrication: new approaches for tissue regeneration
Raymund E Horch, Annika Weigand, Harald Wajant, Jürgen Groll, Aldo R Boccaccini,Andreas Arkudas
Background The advent of Tissue Engineering (TE) in the early 1990ies was fostered by the increasing need for functional tissue and organ replacement. Classical TE was based on the combination of carrier matrices, cells and growth factors to reconstitute lost or damaged tissue and organs. Despite considerable results in vitro and in experimental settings the lack of early vascularization has hampered its translation into daily clinical practice so far. A new field of research, called “biofabrication” utilizing latest 3D printing technologies aims at hierarchically and spatially incorporating different cells, biomaterials and molecules into a matrix to alleviate a directed maturation of artificial tissue.
Materials and Methods A literature research of the relevant publications regarding biofabrication and bioprinting was performed using the PubMed data base. Relevant papers were selected and evaluated with secondary analysis of specific citations on the bioprinting techniques.
Results 180 relevant papers containing the key words were identified and evaluated. Basic principles into the developing field of bioprinting technology could be discerned. Key elements comprise the high-throughput assembly of cells and the fabrication of complex and functional hierarchically organized tissue constructs. Five relevant technological principles for bioprinting were identified, such as stereolithography, extrusion-based printing, laser-assisted printing, inkjet-based printing and nano-bioprinting. The different technical methods of 3D printing were found to be associated with various positive but also negative effects on cells and proteins during the printing process. Research efforts in this field obviously aim towards the development of optimizing the so called bioinks and the printing technologies.
Conclusion This review details the evolution of the classical methods of TE in Regenerative Medicine into the evolving field of biofabrication by bioprinting. The advantages of 3D bioprinting over traditional tissue engineering techniques are based on the assembling of cells, biomaterials and biomolecules in a spatially controlled manner to reproduce native tissue macro-, micro- and nanoarchitectures, that can be utilized not only to potentially produce functional replacement tissues or organs but also to serve as new models for basic research. Mimicking the stromal microenvironment of tumor cells to study the process of tumor formation and progression, metastasis, angiogenesis and modulation of the associated processes is one of these applications under research. To this end a close collaboration of specialists from the fields of engineering, biomaterial science, cell biology and reconstructive microsurgery will be necessary to develop future strategies that can overcome current limitations of tissue generation.